Diabetes Mellitus Expert in Perumbakkam

Your Trusted Partner in Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus, known as diabetes, is a chronic condition characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insufficient insulin production or utilization. We provide comprehensive care and support to help individuals effectively manage diabetes and lead healthy lives.

Understanding Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood sugar levels. This condition arises due to either insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas or the body’s inability to effectively utilize insulin. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels and facilitates the absorption of glucose into cells for energy production.

Type 1 Diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes, is an autoimmune condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. As a result, the pancreas produces little to no insulin, leading to high blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes typically develops during childhood or adolescence, although it can occur at any age. Individuals with Type 1 diabetes require lifelong insulin therapy to manage their condition. The exact cause of Type 1 diabetes is not fully understood, but genetic predisposition and environmental factors, such as viral infections, may play a role in its development.

Type 2 Diabetes: Type 2 Diabetes, also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for the majority of cases worldwide. In Type 2 diabetes, the body either becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or fails to produce enough insulin to meet its needs. This leads to elevated blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes is often associated with lifestyle factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, and poor dietary habits. While it typically develops in adulthood, it is increasingly diagnosed in younger individuals due to rising obesity rates. Treatment for Type 2 diabetes may involve lifestyle modifications such as dietary changes and increased physical activity, oral medications, injectable medications, or insulin therapy.

Gestational Diabetes:Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy. It occurs when hormonal changes during pregnancy impair insulin action, leading to high blood sugar levels. GDM usually develops around the 24th to 28th week of pregnancy and typically resolves after childbirth. However, women who have had GDM are at increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life. Gestational diabetes can increase the risk of complications during pregnancy and childbirth, including macrosomia (large birth weight), birth injuries, and the need for cesarean delivery. Management of GDM involves lifestyle modifications, blood sugar monitoring, and, in some cases, insulin therapy to ensure optimal outcomes for both the mother and baby.

Other Types of Diabetes:

  • Monogenic Diabetes: Caused by mutations in a single gene, resulting in impaired insulin production or action.
  • Secondary Diabetes: Caused by other medical conditions or medications that affect insulin production or action, such as pancreatic disease, hormonal disorders, or certain medications.
  • Diabetes Mellitus due to other causes: Includes diabetes resulting from genetic syndromes, infections, or other rare conditions.

Causes of Diabetes Mellitus

  1. Type 1 Diabetes:

    • Type 1 Diabetes is primarily caused by an autoimmune reaction in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The exact cause of this autoimmune response is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental triggers, such as viral infections.
  2. Type 2 Diabetes:

    • The exact cause of Type 2 Diabetes is multifactorial and involves a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Genetic predisposition plays a significant role, with certain genetic variants increasing the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes. However, lifestyle factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary habits (high sugar and refined carbohydrate intake), and metabolic syndrome contribute significantly to the development of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion, which are hallmark features of Type 2 Diabetes.
  3. Gestational Diabetes:

    • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) occurs due to hormonal changes during pregnancy that lead to insulin resistance. The placenta produces hormones that impair insulin action, resulting in elevated blood sugar levels. While the exact cause of GDM is not fully understood, factors such as maternal obesity, older maternal age, family history of diabetes, and certain ethnicities are known to increase the risk of developing GDM.
  4. Other Types of Diabetes:

    • Other types of diabetes, such as Monogenic Diabetes and Secondary Diabetes, have specific causes related to genetic mutations, medical conditions, or medications. Monogenic Diabetes is caused by mutations in a single gene that affects insulin production or action. Secondary Diabetes may result from conditions such as pancreatic disease, hormonal disorders (e.g., Cushing’s syndrome), or the use of certain medications (e.g., corticosteroids).
Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus:


Lifestyle Modifications:

  • Healthy Diet: Adopting a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats can help regulate blood sugar levels and manage weight.
  • Regular Exercise: Engaging in regular physical activity, such as brisk walking, jogging, swimming, or cycling, helps improve insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism.
  • Weight Management: Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight through diet and exercise can reduce insulin resistance and improve blood sugar control.
  • Blood Sugar Monitoring: Regularly monitoring blood sugar levels at home helps individuals with diabetes track their progress and make necessary adjustments to their treatment plan.
  • Stress Management: Stress can affect blood sugar levels, so practicing relaxation techniques such as meditation, deep breathing exercises, or yoga can be beneficial.


  • Insulin Therapy: For individuals with Type 1 Diabetes or advanced Type 2 Diabetes, insulin therapy is often necessary to regulate blood sugar levels effectively. Insulin may be administered via injections or insulin pumps.
  • Oral Medications: Several classes of oral medications are available to help lower blood sugar levels by improving insulin sensitivity, reducing glucose production in the liver, or increasing insulin secretion from the pancreas. These medications may be used alone or in combination with insulin therapy.

Non-Surgical Treatments:

  • Oral Antidiabetic Agents: These medications, such as Metformin, Sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, and SGLT2 inhibitors, are commonly used to lower blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity.
  • Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM): CGM systems use sensors to continuously monitor glucose levels throughout the day and night, providing real-time data to help individuals make informed decisions about diet, exercise, and medication adjustments.
  • Education and Support Programs: Diabetes education and support programs provide individuals with information, skills, and resources to effectively manage their condition, including meal planning, blood sugar monitoring, medication management, and coping strategies.

Surgical Intervention:

  • Bariatric Surgery: In individuals with severe obesity and Type 2 Diabetes that is difficult to control with lifestyle modifications and medications, bariatric surgery may be considered as a treatment option. Bariatric procedures such as gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy can lead to significant weight loss and improvement in insulin sensitivity, resulting in remission or improvement of diabetes.
  • Pancreas Transplantation: For individuals with Type 1 Diabetes who have severe complications and poor blood sugar control despite optimal medical management, pancreas transplantation may be considered. This surgical procedure involves replacing the diseased pancreas with a healthy donor pancreas to restore normal insulin production and blood sugar regulation.
Frequently Asked Question on Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood sugar levels due to insufficient insulin production, impaired insulin action, or both. It can lead to various complications affecting the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and cardiovascular system.

What are the risk factors for developing Diabetes Mellitus?

Risk factors for Diabetes Mellitus include family history, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy dietary habits, advancing age, ethnicity, gestational diabetes during pregnancy, and certain medical conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome.

How is Diabetes Mellitus diagnosed?

Diabetes Mellitus is diagnosed through blood tests that measure fasting blood sugar levels, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. These tests help healthcare professionals assess blood sugar control and diagnose diabetes.

Can Diabetes Mellitus be prevented?

While Type 1 Diabetes cannot be prevented, Type 2 Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus can often be prevented or delayed through healthy lifestyle habits such as maintaining a healthy weight, engaging in regular physical activity, eating a balanced diet, and avoiding tobacco use.

What are the potential complications of Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetes Mellitus can lead to various complications, including cardiovascular disease, kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy), nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy), eye damage (diabetic retinopathy), foot complications (diabetic foot), and increased risk of infections.

What support resources are available for individuals with Diabetes Mellitus?

There are various support resources available for individuals with Diabetes Mellitus, including diabetes education programs, support groups, online forums, mobile applications, and educational materials provided by healthcare organizations, advocacy groups, and government agencies. These resources offer information, guidance, and emotional support to help individuals manage their condition effectively.