Hernia Expert in Perumbakkam

Your Trusted Partner in Hernia

Hernia occurs when an organ or tissue protrudes through a weak spot or tear in the surrounding muscle or connective tissue, resulting in a visible bulge or lump. At our facility, we provide comprehensive care and guidance to effectively diagnose and manage hernias, ensuring personalized treatment plans tailored to your specific needs. 

Understanding Hernia

Types of Hernia

Inguinal Hernia: Inguinal hernias are the most common type, accounting for approximately 70-75% of all hernias. They occur when a portion of the intestine or abdominal tissue protrudes through a weak spot or tear in the lower abdominal wall, typically in the groin area. Inguinal hernias can be further categorized as direct or indirect, depending on whether they occur through a natural weakness in the abdominal wall or the inguinal canal, respectively. They often present as a visible bulge or lump in the groin, which may become more prominent when coughing, straining, or standing for extended periods.

Femoral Hernia: Femoral hernias are less common than inguinal hernias but occur in a similar area of the groin. They develop when abdominal contents, such as the intestine, protrude through the femoral canal, a passage near the femoral artery that connects the abdomen to the thigh. Femoral hernias are more prevalent in women, particularly those who are pregnant or overweight. Unlike inguinal hernias, femoral hernias tend to present as a lump or bulge lower in the groin and may cause discomfort or pain, especially when standing or lifting heavy objects.

Incisional Hernia: Incisional hernias occur at the site of a previous surgical incision, where the abdominal muscles have weakened or separated, allowing abdominal contents to protrude through. These hernias typically develop weeks or months after surgery and may be associated with factors such as wound infection, poor surgical technique, or excessive strain on the incision site during the recovery period. Incisional hernias can vary in size and severity, ranging from small bulges to larger protrusions that cause pain, discomfort, or complications such as bowel obstruction or strangulation.

Umbilical Hernia: Umbilical hernias occur when abdominal tissue, such as fat or part of the intestine, protrudes through a weakened area near the belly button (umbilicus). They are common in infants, occurring in approximately 10-20% of newborns, but can also affect adults, particularly those who are overweight, pregnant, or have undergone abdominal surgery. Umbilical hernias may appear as a visible bulge or swelling around the navel and can cause discomfort, especially when coughing, straining, or lifting heavy objects.

Hiatal Hernia: Hiatal hernias occur when a portion of the stomach protrudes upward through the diaphragm into the chest cavity. They are often associated with weakening of the diaphragm muscle or an enlarged opening (hiatus) through which the esophagus passes. Hiatal hernias can be categorized as sliding or paraesophageal, depending on the extent of stomach displacement and the risk of complications such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or strangulation of the stomach. Symptoms may include heartburn, chest pain, difficulty swallowing, or regurgitation of stomach acid into the esophagus.

Epigastric Hernia: Epigastric hernias occur in the upper abdomen, between the breastbone (sternum) and the navel (umbilicus), where the abdominal muscles have weakened or separated, allowing fatty tissue to protrude through. These hernias often present as small, painless lumps or bulges that may be noticeable when standing or straining but typically do not cause significant symptoms or complications.

Spigelian Hernia: Spigelian hernias occur along the edges of the rectus abdominis muscle, typically below the navel and to the side, where the abdominal wall is relatively weak. These hernias can develop gradually over time, often presenting as intermittent swelling or discomfort in the lower abdomen. Spigelian hernias may be more challenging to diagnose due to their location and may require surgical repair to prevent complications such as bowel obstruction or strangulation.

Causes of Hernia

Weakness in the Abdominal Wall: Hernias often occur when there is a weakness or defect in the muscles or connective tissue of the abdominal wall. This weakness may be present from birth (congenital) or develop over time due to factors such as aging, injury, or repeated strain on the abdominal muscles.

Increased Intra-abdominal Pressure: Anything that increases pressure within the abdomen can contribute to hernia formation. This includes lifting heavy objects, chronic coughing or sneezing, straining during bowel movements or urination, obesity, pregnancy, or fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites).

Genetic Predisposition: Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to developing hernias due to inherited factors that affect the strength and integrity of the abdominal wall.

Pregnancy and Childbirth: The physical changes that occur during pregnancy, such as hormonal fluctuations, weight gain, and increased intra-abdominal pressure, can predispose women to developing hernias, particularly in the groin (inguinal) or umbilical regions. Additionally, vaginal childbirth can weaken the pelvic floor muscles and increase the risk of hernias in both women and men.

Chronic Constipation or Straining: Persistent constipation or straining during bowel movements can put excessive pressure on the abdominal muscles and increase the risk of hernia development, particularly in the groin or rectal area.

Heavy Lifting or Straining: Activities that involve heavy lifting, repetitive straining, or sudden exertion can strain the abdominal muscles and lead to hernia formation, especially if proper lifting techniques are not followed.

Previous Abdominal SurgeryPrevious abdominal surgery, particularly if it involved an incision in the abdominal wall, can weaken the surrounding tissues and increase the risk of developing an incisional hernia at the surgical site.

Chronic Coughing or Respiratory Conditions: Chronic coughing associated with conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or smoking can strain the abdominal muscles and contribute to hernia formation, particularly in the groin (inguinal) or diaphragm (hiatal) regions.

ObesityExcess body weight can place increased pressure on the abdominal wall, weaken the muscles, and contribute to hernia development, particularly in areas prone to weakness such as the groin, umbilicus, or incision sites.

Certain Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as connective tissue disorders (e.g., Ehlers-Danlos syndrome), chronic coughing due to lung disease, or conditions that increase intra-abdominal pressure (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ascites), can predispose individuals to hernia formation.

Symptoms of Hernia:


Lifestyle Modifications:

  • Avoiding heavy lifting and strenuous activities.
  • Maintaining a healthy weight to reduce intra-abdominal pressure.
  • Quitting smoking, as it can weaken the abdominal muscles and contribute to hernia development.
  • Practicing proper lifting techniques to prevent strain on the abdomen.


  • Over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or NSAIDs to alleviate discomfort associated with hernias.

Non-Surgical Treatments:

  • Watchful Waiting: Monitoring the hernia’s size and symptoms over time without immediate intervention.
  • Hernia Trusses or Supports: Using supportive devices to alleviate symptoms temporarily by applying gentle pressure to the hernia.

Surgical Intervention:

  • Hernia Repair Surgery (Herniorrhaphy or Hernioplasty): Surgical repair is the most effective treatment for hernias. It involves returning the protruding tissue to its proper place and repairing the weakened abdominal wall using stitches, mesh, or other surgical techniques.
  • Laparoscopic Hernia Repair: Minimally invasive surgery performed through small incisions using a laparoscope and specialized instruments.
  • Robotic-Assisted Hernia Repair: Similar to laparoscopic surgery, but with the assistance of robotic arms controlled by the surgeon.
  • Open Hernia Repair: Traditional surgery involving a larger incision directly over the hernia site to access and repair the hernia.
Frequently Asked Question on Hernia
What is a hernia?

A hernia occurs when an organ or tissue protrudes through a weak spot or tear in the surrounding muscle or connective tissue, resulting in a visible bulge or lump.

What are the common types of hernias?

Common types of hernias include inguinal hernias (in the groin), umbilical hernias (around the belly button), femoral hernias (lower groin), incisional hernias (at surgical incision sites), and hiatal hernias (in the diaphragm).

How are hernias diagnosed?

Hernias are typically diagnosed through a physical examination by a healthcare provider. Imaging tests such as ultrasound, MRI, or CT scan may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis or evaluate the size and extent of the hernia.

Do hernias require surgery?

While not all hernias require surgery, surgical repair is often recommended, especially if the hernia is symptomatic or at risk of complications such as incarceration or strangulation.

What are the risks of hernia surgery?

Risks of hernia surgery may include infection, bleeding, recurrence of the hernia, nerve damage, chronic pain, and complications related to anesthesia. However, these risks are generally low, and most patients have successful outcomes with proper surgical care.

Can hernias come back after surgery?

While hernia recurrence is possible, the risk is generally low, especially with modern surgical techniques such as mesh repair. Following postoperative instructions, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, and avoiding activities that increase intra-abdominal pressure can help reduce the risk of hernia recurrence.