Pilonidal Sinus Expert in Perumbakkam

Your Trusted Partner in Pilonidal Sinus

A pilonidal sinus is a small tunnel or tract that forms under the skin between the buttocks, near the tailbone (coccyx). At our facility, we offer comprehensive care and guidance to address your pilonidal sinus effectively.

Understanding Pilonidal Sinus

Types of Pilonidal Sinus

Acute Pilonidal Sinus:

An acute pilonidal abscess is a sudden and painful collection of pus that forms in a cavity or cyst within the skin near the tailbone (coccyx). It develops rapidly and is often accompanied by symptoms such as severe pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area. The abscess may feel firm to the touch and can cause discomfort with movement or sitting. Drainage of pus or blood from the abscess is common, and fever or chills may also occur. Prompt medical attention is typically required to drain the abscess and initiate antibiotic therapy to prevent further infection.

Chronic Pilonidal Sinus:

A chronic pilonidal sinus is a recurring or persistent condition characterized by inflammation and infection of the sinus tract between the buttocks, near the tailbone. Unlike acute abscesses, chronic sinuses may present with intermittent symptoms that come and go over time. These symptoms often include recurrent episodes of pain, swelling, and drainage of pus or blood from the sinus openings. The condition may cause discomfort and inconvenience, especially during flare-ups. Management of chronic pilonidal sinuses typically involves a combination of measures aimed at reducing inflammation, controlling infection, and preventing recurrence, which may include regular cleansing, hair removal, antibiotic therapy, and surgical interventions.

Causes of Pilonidal Sinus

Hair Entrapment:Hair entrapped in the skin near the buttock cleft is a primary cause of pilonidal sinus. When loose hairs penetrate the skin, they can become embedded in the hair follicles, leading to irritation, inflammation, and the formation of a cyst or abscess.

Friction and Pressure:Prolonged sitting or activities that involve friction and pressure on the buttock area can contribute to the development of pilonidal sinus. Continuous pressure on the skin can cause hair follicles to become irritated and blocked, increasing the risk of sinus formation.

Deep Skin Folds:Individuals with deep skin folds or creases in the buttock area may be more prone to pilonidal sinus. These skin folds can trap moisture, sweat, and debris, creating an environment conducive to bacterial growth and the development of cysts or abscesses.

Excessive Sweating:Excessive sweating in the buttock region can exacerbate the risk of pilonidal sinus by creating a warm, moist environment that promotes bacterial proliferation and inflammation. Sweat can mix with hair and other debris, further clogging hair follicles and leading to sinus formation.

Genetic Predisposition:Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to developing pilonidal sinus. Certain inherited factors or anatomical variations in the buttock region may increase susceptibility to hair entrapment, inflammation, and sinus formation.

Poor Hygiene:Inadequate hygiene practices, such as infrequent cleansing of the buttock area or improper hair removal techniques, can contribute to the accumulation of dirt, sweat, and bacteria, leading to the formation of pilonidal sinus.

Trauma or Injury: Trauma or injury to the buttock area, such as falls or prolonged sitting on hard surfaces, can disrupt the skin’s natural barrier and predispose it to infection and sinus formation.

ObesityObesity or excess body weight can increase the risk of pilonidal sinus by creating additional pressure and friction on the buttock area. Excess adipose tissue may also contribute to the accumulation of sweat and moisture, exacerbating the conditions favorable for sinus development.

Symptoms of Pilonidal Sinus:


Preventive Measures:

  • Hair Removal: Regular shaving or waxing of the buttock area to reduce hair accumulation and prevent recurrence.
  • Hygiene Practices: Proper hygiene, including regular cleansing and drying of the affected area, to prevent bacterial growth and infection.
  • Lifestyle Modifications: Avoiding prolonged sitting, maintaining a healthy weight, and wearing loose-fitting clothing to reduce friction and pressure on the buttock area.

Non-Surgical Treatments:

  • Antibiotics: Oral or topical antibiotics may be prescribed to treat underlying infections or prevent recurrence.
  • Laser Therapy: Laser treatment may be used to remove hair follicles and cauterize sinus openings, reducing the risk of recurrence.
  • Fibrin Sealant Injection: Injection of a fibrin sealant into the sinus tract to close off the opening and promote healing.

Minimally Invasive Procedures:

  • Pilonidal Sinus Laser Treatment (PSLT): Minimally invasive laser treatment to destroy sinus tissue and promote closure.
  • Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Minimally invasive surgical technique using an endoscope to visualize and remove sinus tissue.

Surgical Intervention:

  • Incision and Drainage (I&D): Surgical opening of the abscess or cyst to allow drainage of pus and fluid.
  • Excision of Sinus Tract: Surgical removal of the entire pilonidal sinus tract, along with any associated abscesses or cysts.
  • Marsupialization: Surgical creation of a small opening in the skin near the sinus to promote drainage and healing.
  • Flap Procedures: Surgical techniques involving the use of nearby tissue to cover and repair the sinus opening.
Frequently Asked Question on Pilonidal Sinus
What is a pilonidal sinus?

A pilonidal sinus is a small tunnel or tract that forms beneath the skin, usually between the buttocks near the tailbone (coccyx). It often develops due to the accumulation of hair, debris, and bacteria in the area, leading to inflammation, infection, and the formation of abscesses or cysts.

What are the symptoms of pilonidal sinus?

Common symptoms of pilonidal sinus include pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness in the affected area. Drainage of pus or blood from sinus openings, itching, difficulty sitting or moving, and recurrent infections are also typical symptoms.

What causes pilonidal sinus?

Pilonidal sinus is often caused by factors such as hair entrapment, friction and pressure on the buttock area, deep skin folds, excessive sweating, genetic predisposition, poor hygiene, trauma or injury, and obesity. These factors can lead to the formation of cysts, abscesses, and sinus tracts.

How is pilonidal sinus diagnosed?

Pilonidal sinus is typically diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history review, and sometimes imaging studies such as ultrasound or MRI. The healthcare provider may look for signs of inflammation, swelling, or drainage around the affected area and may gently palpate the area to identify sinus tracts.

What are the treatment options for pilonidal sinus?

Treatment for pilonidal sinus depends on factors such as the severity of the condition, the presence of complications, and individual patient preferences. Common treatment options include incision and drainage of abscesses, surgical excision of sinus tracts, marsupialization, antibiotics, laser therapy, and wound care. Preventive measures such as hair removal and proper hygiene practices may also be recommended to reduce the risk of recurrence.